2nd edition: K. Buchholz
/ V. Kasche / U.T. Bornscheuer (Wiley-VCH, 2012)
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. "Overall, the second edition is up-to-date and can be recommended without hesitation for every reader interested in enzyme catalysis and applications."
Biotechnol. J. "It was a real pleasure to carefully study this textbook step by step and I would in any event recommend it worldwide as a basic introductory course in enzyme engineering."
/ V. Kasche / U.T. Bornscheuer (Wiley-VCH, 2005)
1 (free download)
For the chinese version, click here
in Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.,
ChemBioChem, and Eng.
to the 1st English Edition
The basic philosophy of the previous german edition is retained. The contents
have been revised and updated to account for the considerable development
in enzyme technology/applied biocatalysis since the german edition was prepared
some 10 years ago. For this aim also a new Chapter 3 has been added to account
for the increasing importance of enzymes as biocatalysts in organic chemistry.
Recent progress in proteoin design (by rational means and directed evolution)
has been considerably expanded in Chapter 2. The last chapter has been amended
with more detailed case studies to illustrate the problems that must be solved
in the design of enzyme processes. An appendix on information retrieval using
library and internet resources has been added. We thank Thomas Hapke (Subject
Librarian for Chemical Engineering at the Libraty of the Technical University
Hamburg-Harburg) for help in the preparation of this appendix. The chapter
on enzymes for analytical purposes has been removed in this english edition
as it now is outside the scope of this textbook.
We thank Prof. Dr. L. Jaenicke and Prof. Dr. J.K.P. Weder for very constructive
suggestions for corrections and improvements of the german edition.
The authors of this edition thank Prof. Dr. Andreas Bommarius, Dr. Aurelio
Hidalgo, Dr. Janne Kerovuo, Dr. Tanja Kummer, Dr. Dieter Krämer, Brian
Morgan, Sven Pedersen, Poul Poulsen, Prof. dr. Peter Reilly, Dr. Klaus Sauber,
Dr. Wilhelm Tischer, Dr. David Weiner for valuable discussions, revisions
and suggestions while preparing this book.
Klaus Buchholz Volker Kasche Uwe T. Bornscheuer
to the 1st german edition
Biotechnology is the technical
application of biological systems or parts thereof to provide products and
services to meet human needs. It can, besides other techniques, contribute
to do this in a sustainable manner. Mainly renewable raw materials and biological
systems are used in biotechnological processes. They can therefore –
and should – be performed practically without waste, as all by-products
can be recycled.
To develop the natural and engineering science fundamentals for the design
of such processes is a challenge for biotechnology, a field that originated
from the overlapping parts of biology, chemistry and process engineering.
The education for a career in biotechnology consists, besides the basic knowledge
of these fields, of additional biotechnological contents. The latter must
provide an overview over the whole field and a deeper insight in different
parts of biotechnology. The biotechnological production of various goods is
done either in fermenters with living cells (technical microbiology), or with
enzymes, isolated or in cells as biocatalysts. The latter has developed to
a part of biotechnology known as enzyme technology or applied biocatalysis.
The aim of the present textbook is to provide a deeper insight in the fundamentals
of enzyme technology and applied biocatalysis. It especially stresses the
following interrrelationships: A thorough understanding of enzymes as biocatalysts
requires the integration of natural science knowledge: biology, esperially
biochemistry, cell and molecular biology; physico-chemical aspects of catalysis
and molecular interactions in solutions, heterogeneous systems and interphase
boundaries; the physics of mass transfer processes. The same applies for the
interrelations between enzyme technology and chemical and process engineering,
which are based on the above natural sciences.
In less than a century since the start of industrial enzyme production, enzyme
technology and its products have continuously gained increasing importance.
For the industrial production of goods to meet demands in human need for everyday
life, enzymes play an important – often hardly known role. Their application
spans from the production of processed foods, such as bread, cheese, juice
beer; pharmaceuticals; fine chemicals; to the processing of leather and textiles,
and their application as process aids in detergents or environmental engineering.
To meet the demand for new products, such as new or sterically pure pharmaceuticals
and fine chemicals, is an important incentive for the further development
of biocatalysts and enzyme technology. Of similar importance is the development
of new sustainable production processes for existing products. This is covered
in the introductory chapter 1.
Enzymes as catalysts are of key importance in biotechnology, similar to the
role of nucleic acids as carriers of genetic information. Their application
as isolated catalysts justifies the detailed treatment of the fundamentals
of enzymes as biocatalyts in chapter 2. They can be analyzed on a molecular
level and their kinetics can be described by mathematics. This is essential
for an analytical description and the rational design of enzyme processes.
Enzymes can catalyse a reaction in both directions. This is applied in enzyme
technology, in order to reach the desired endpoint of a reaction rapidly and
with high product yield. The thermodynamics of the catalyzed reaction must
also be considered, as well as the properties of the enzyme. The enzyme amount
required for a given conversion of substrate per unit time must be calculated
in order to estimate the enzyme cost and the economic feasability of the process.
Therefore the quantitative treatment of biocatalysis is stressed in this chapter.
When the enzyme costs are too high, they can be reduced by improving the production
of enzymes. This is reviewed in Chapter 3 (4 in this book).
In Chapter 4 (here 5) applied biocatalysis with free enzymes is covered based
on examples of relevant enzyme processes. When the single use is economically
unfavourable, the enzymes can be reused or used for continuous processes either
in membrane reactors (Chapter 4, here Chapter 5) or by immobilization (Chapter
5 and 6, here 6 and 7). Chapter 5 covers the immobilisation of isolated enzymes
in detail. In Chapter 6 this is done for microorganisms and cells, with special
reference for environmental technology.
In order to describe processes with immobilized biocatalysts analytically
that is required for a rational process design, the coupling of reaction and
diffusion in these systems must be considered. For such a characterization
of immobilized biocatalysts methods developed previously for analogous biological
and process engineering (heterogeneous catalysis) systems, can be used (Chapter
7, here 8).
In Chapter 8 (here 9) reactors and process engineering techniques in enzyme
technology are covered. In the last Chapter the analytical applications of
free and immobilized enzymes is treated (not covered here).
In each Chapter an introductory survey, exercises and references to more general
literature and original papers, cited or covering the contents of the Chapter
The textbook addresses advanced and graduate students in Biology, Chemistry
and Biochemical, Chemical and Process Engineering, as well as scientists in
industry, research institutes and universities. It should provide a solid
foundation that covers all relevant aspects for research and development in
Applied Biocatalysis/Enzyme Technology. They are not of equal importance in
all cases. Therefore a selective use of the book, depending on the individual
requirements may be suitable.
In addition to a balanced methodological basis, we have tried to present extensive
data and examples of new processes, in order to stress the relevance for the
From our point of view it is also important to stress the interactions, which
exist beyond the scientific and engineering context with our society and environment.
The importance and necessity of these interactions for a sustainable development
has been realized in the last two decades and has resulted in new economic
and political boundary conditions for scientific and engineering development.
Problems, such as the occurence of allergy due to enzymes during the first
use of enzymes in detergents, and the newly introduced use of enzymes produced
in recombinant organisms, directly illustrate their influence on enzyme technology/applied
biocatalysis. An integrated process design must therefore also consider its
environmental impact, from the supply and efficient use of raw materials to
the minimization and recycling of by-products and waste. Political boundary
conditions derived from the sustainability concept, expressed in laws and
other regulations, necessitates their consideration in research and development.
The design of sustainable processes is therefore an important challenge also
for applied biocatalysis/enzyme technology. Ethical aspects must also be considered
when gene technology is applied, as it is increasingly done in the production
of technical and pharmaceutical enzymes. The manifold interactions between
research and development and the economic and political boundary conditions,
must be considered in every application of natural and engineering sciences.
This must be done in an early phase of the development, with evaluation and
selection of the best of alternative production processes to meet various
human needs as is illustrated in the following scheme.
(not shown here)
This book has been developed from our lectures. We thank all those who gaveus
valuable recommendations in order to improve it. For their help during the
preparation of the manuscript and the drawings we thank Dipl.Ing. Klaus Gollembiewsky,
Dr. Lieker, Dr. Noll-Borchers and Dipl. Chem. Andre Rieks.
Klaus Buchholz Volker Kasche
For further information please contact:
Our new homepage is almost finished and this site will not be updated anymore.
In 2016, Uwe Bornscheuer has published News & Views articles in "Nature" and in "Nature Chem. Biol.", a "Perspectives" contribution in the journal "Science" and aresearch article in the journal "Nature Chem."
Johannes Kabisch (junior research group leader) has accepted a position as Junior-Professor at the TU-Darmstadt and Robert Kourist is now full Professor at the TU-Graz, congratulations!
Daniel Last (#51) has finished his PhD!
Uwe Bornscheuer has published his 25th contribution (an Editorial) in the top chemistry journal "Angew. Chem. Int. Ed."
Uwe Bornscheuer has received the "Stephen S. Chang Award" of the Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. (AOCS).
Our paper on the discovery of (R)-selective amine transaminases has been highlighted as "Best Design Concept" by Nat. Chem. Biol.
An author profile about Uwe Bornscheuer has been published in Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
Institute of Biochemistry
Dept. of Biotechnology & Enzyme Catalysis
D-17487 Greifswald/ Germany
+49 (0)3834-86-4391 (Secr.)